Child sexual abuse (CSA) involves the forcing or enticing of a child or young person to take part in sexual activities, not necessarily involving a high level of violence, whether or not the child is aware of what is happening. The behaviours and acts associated with CSA may involve physical contact or non-contact activities. CSA covers a range of offending behaviours that can fall into a variety of criminal offences and legislation. The important first step is to recognise the risk and make a referral to the Police to provide the opportunity to bring perpetrators to justice and protect victims.
There are two types of CSA:
1. Contact CSA
Contact abuse is when an abuser makes physical contact with a child and includes:
- Sexual touching of any part of a child’s body, whether they’re clothed or not.
- Using a body part or object to rape or penetrate a child.
- Forcing a child to take part in sexual activities.
- Making a child undress or touch someone else.
- Contact abuse can include touching, kissing and oral sex.
- Sexual abuse isn’t just penetrative
2. Non-contact CSA
Non-contact abuse is when a child is abused without being touched by the abuser. This can be in person or online and includes:
- Exposing or flashing.
- Showing pornography.
- Exposing a child to sexual acts.
- Making them masturbate.
- forcing a child to make, view or share child abuse images or videos
- Making, viewing or distributing child abuse images or videos.
- Forcing a child to take part in sexual activities or conversations online or through a smartphone.