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Child sexual abuse (CSA) involves the forcing or enticing of a child or young person to take part in sexual activities, not necessarily involving a high level of violence, whether or not the child is aware of what is happening. The behaviours and acts associated with CSA may involve physical contact or non-contact activities.  CSA covers a range of offending behaviours that can fall into a variety of criminal offences and legislation. The important first step is to recognise the risk and make a referral to the Police to provide the opportunity to bring perpetrators to justice and protect victims.

There are two types of CSA:

Criminality1. Contact CSA

Contact abuse is when an abuser makes physical contact with a child and includes:

  • Sexual touching of any part of a child’s body, whether they’re clothed or not.
  • Using a body part or object to rape or penetrate a child.
  • Forcing a child to take part in sexual activities.
  • Making a child undress or touch someone else.
  • Contact abuse can include touching, kissing and oral sex.
  • Sexual abuse isn’t just penetrative

2. Non-contact CSA

Non-contact abuse is when a child is abused without being touched by the abuser. This can be in person or online and includes:

  • Exposing or flashing.
  • Showing pornography.
  • Exposing a child to sexual acts.
  • Making them masturbate.
  • forcing a child to make, view or share child abuse images or videos
  • Making, viewing or distributing child abuse images or videos.
  • Forcing a child to take part in sexual activities or conversations online or through a smartphone.